By the end of the war, Sulla for all practical purposes, was in overall command of the campaign; and his reward for victory was his election as Consul for 88 BC. The city was a stronghold of Christians after his death. Cornelius Sulla. The first of these was Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius who governed Africa. Also from this point on, office holders would be required to hold successive offices in the Cursus Honorum before being elected to the next higher one. His veterans were scattered throughout the province and allowed to extort the wealth of local communities. Two men however, rose above them all. Ashab-ı Kehf cavern, one of the locations claimed to be the resting place of the legendary Seven Sleepers, holy to Christians and Muslims, is located north of Tarsus. [44] In 1359, Mamluk Sultanate Army marched into Cilicia and took over Adana and Tarsus, two major cities of the plain, leaving few castles to Armenians. Flaccus, hearing of this, marched his army to Byzantium to put a stop to the rebellion, but walked right into his own undoing. [48] Armenians of Zeitun had organized a successful resistance against the Ottoman onslaught. 2008. The main animal species in the area are wild goat, roe deer, bear, hyena, wild cat, wagtail, wolf, jackal and fox. Under Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy (c. 297), Cilicia was governed by a consularis; with Isauria and the Syrian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Libyan provinces, formed the Diocesis Orientis[6] (in the late 4th century the African component was split off as Diocese of Egypt), part of the pretorian prefecture also called Oriens ('the East', also including the dioceses of Asiana and Pontica, both in Anatolia, and Thraciae in the Balkans), the rich bulk of the eastern Roman Empire. Sulla first came into prominence when he served as quaestor (107-106 B.C.) The university employs more than 2100 academicians and enrolls 26,980 students. With Fimbria re-establishing Roman hegemony over the cities of Asia Minor, Mithridates position was completely untenable. Soon after, King Sunassura II was forced to accept vassalization under the Hittites, becoming the last king of ancient Cilicia.[30]. [24][25][page needed] Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic: 8th and 7th millennia BC; Early Chalcolithic: 5800 BC; Middle Chalcolithic (correlated with Halaf and Ubaid developments in the east): c. 5400–4500 BC; Late Chalcolithic: 4500–c. Appuašu, the son of Syennessis, defended the country against the Babylonian king Neriglissar campaign, whose army reached Cilicia and crossed the Taurus mountain range. United and Romanized, through conquest, or absorbed through its culture, Rome still stands today as a legacy to the achievement of mankind, and its failures. With Sulla's three quick victories, though, the situation began to rapidly turn in his favor. Another underconstruction airport is Çukurova Regional Airport, According to the newspaper Hürriyet, the project's cost will be 357 million Euro. of Pontus restore Cappadocia to Ariobarzanes, one of Rome’s dependants in Asia. The pipeline is 511 km long and has an annual capacity of 3.5 million tons.[55]. Adana-Mersin train runs as a commuter train between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. The life of Sulla is one of stark contrast and yet striking similarities to those of Marius, and later, Julius Caesar. [6], The great highway from the west existed before Cyrus conquered Cilicia. Fimbria called upon Sulla's legate, Lucullus to bring his fleet around to block Mithridates in, but it seems that Sulla had other plans. Sulla later made it publicly known that not only would Asiagenus suffer for opposing him, but that any man who continued to oppose him after this betrayal would suffer bitter consequences. Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC first conquered by Marcus Antonius Orator in his campaign against pirates, with Sulla acting as its first governor, foiling an invasion of Mithridates, and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 BC, into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia. [6] During the Hellenistic era, numerous cities were established in Cilicia, which minted coins showing the badges (gods, animals and objects) associated with each polis. He pursued Fimbria to his camp at Thyatira where Fimbria was confident in his ability to repulse an attack. Depsite Sulla's later claims, Rome under Cinna was relatively calm and the full Senate seemed to participate in legislation and debate. The Senate re-elected Cinna's old co-Consul, Papirius Carbo, to his third term, and Gaius Marius the Younger, the 26 year old son of the great general, to his first. Oddly enough, after killing so many members of the senate, he became its champion. In B.C. Left without an army, Asiagenus had little choice but to cooperate and later writings of Cicero suggest that the two men actually discussed many matters regarding Roman government and the Constitution. The Arabs succeeded in conquering the area in the early 8th century. Gray mullet, red mullet, sea bass, lagos, calamari and gilt-head bream are some of the most popular fish in the region. 95/7 Sulla, the propraetor of Cilicia, installs Ariobarzanes as king of 80/33 proquaestor to Dolabella in Cilicia, and loots various allied states 78/30 Scaurus after returning from Cilicia, and is convicted of extortion. [58] Kurttepe, Alihocalı and Ilıca mineral springs, all located in Adana Province, are popular for toxic cleansing. The Parthian ambassador, Orobazus, was executed upon his return to Part… Mountains of Cilicia have an inland climate with snowy winters. [33], Under the Persian empire Cilicia (in Old Persian: Karka)[34][6] was apparently governed by tributary native kings who bore a Hellenized name or the title of "Syennesis", but it was officially included in the fourth satrapy by Darius. Ceyhan hosts oil, natural gas terminals as well as refineries and shipbuilders. On its long rough descent from the Anatolian plateau to Tarsus, it ran through the narrow pass between walls of rock called the Cilician Gates. Following his praetorship, Sulla was assigned to serve as governor of the Roman province of Ciliciabeginning in 96 BCE, where he displayed his administrative aptitude and m… [73] Main campus is in the city of Mersin. Defended by Archelaus, the plan was nearly a disaster as the walled port was in excellent defensive position with access to reinforcement by sea. The city was built on a hill and had a strategic importance, controlling the Cilicia plain. One member of the proscription lists who managed to survive was Gaius Julius Caesar. The husband of Cinna's (Sulla' rival) daughter and the nephew of Gaius Marius, he was most assuredly a top candidate for death. Cilicia Pedias ("flat Cilicia"—Ancient Greek: Κιλικία Πεδιάς; Assyrian Kue), to the east, included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large coastal plain, with rich loamy soil,[6] known to the Greeks such as Xenophon, who passed through with his mercenary group of the Ten Thousand,[20] for its abundance (euthemia),[21] filled with sesame and millet and olives[22] and pasturage for the horses imported by Solomon. Meeting at the town of Orchomenos Sulla's forces began to dig in defensively, but with little time to spare before Archelaus' arrival, they were unable to complete their preparations. Similar Items. si-lish'-i-a (he Kilikia): An important province at the Southeast angle of Asia Minor, corresponding nearly with the modern Turkish vilayet of Adana; enfolded between the Taurus mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, with the Amanus range on the East and Pamphylia on the West; chief rivers, the Pyramus, Sarus, Cydnus and Calycadnus. As being at a geography that is strategically significant, Cilicians could expand their kingdom as north as Halys River in a short period. The new dictator introduced a judicial process called the proscription. Whatever additional discourse was taking place is unclear however. With the army at his back, the Senate was forced to ignore the constitution and proclaim Sulla as Dictator of Rome for an indefinite period of time. The first king of free Cilicia, Išputahšu, son of Pariyawatri, was recorded as a "great king" in both cuneiform and Hittite hieroglyphs. Rather than continue trying to rescue Marius, Telesinus moved north towards Rome. Domitius Ahenobarbus. and had a command in Cilicia in Asia Minor. By the 90's BC, Mithridates took firm control of several neighboring regions to the north and continued efforts would push him into direct conflict with Rome. Thanks to Sulla's own personal memoirs, which have been lost to history, though preserved through the works of others, such as Plutarch and perhaps Appian, we actually know a great deal about him and the time period. Sulla certainly made a lasting impression in this first major official contact between Rome and Parthia. Levon II (Leo the Great (r. 1187–1219)), extended the kingdom beyond Mount Taurus and established the capital at Sis. Hatay is the most rural province of Cilicia and also Hatay is the only province that the rural population is rising and the urban population is declining. north of Adana, near Tufanbeyli. Two of the three future Triumvirs joined Sulla's cause in his bid to take control. Al nord de Tars les muntanyes del Taure tancaven el país. Based on the terms of the agreement, France recognized the end of the Cilicia War, and French troops together with the remaining Armenian volunteers withdrew from the region in early January 1922. By 91 BC, Mithridates supported the overthrow of the Bithynian King Nicomedes and then influenced local forces to overthrow Ariobarzanes in Cappadocia. Through the rich plain of Issus ran the great highway that linked east and west, on which stood the cities of Tarsus (Tarsa) on the Cydnus, Adana (Adanija) on the Sarus, and Mopsuestia (Missis) on the Pyramus.[6]. The most common species of plant life is black pine and cluster pine trees, with some cedar dotted between, and fir trees in the northern areas with higher humidity. Addenda e corrigenda, 2. von: Staffieri, G.M. The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook, Empire of Honour: The Art of Government in the Roman World, Roman Government's Response to Crisis, A.D.235-337, Swords Against The Senate: The Rise Of The Roman Army And The Fall Of The Republic, Augustus, First Roman Emperor: Power, Propaganda and the Politics of Survival. All resistance to the Pontic army collapsed and it swept into Asia Minor and neighboring territories. In 1869, Adana Eyalet was re-established as Adana Vilayet, after the re-structuring in the Ottoman Administration. It is the home of Saint Peter, one of the 12 saints of Jesus.[56]. [citation needed] The Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where they settled in the area of Cappadocia. Petroleum refineries are being built in the area. Amanus by the Armenian Gate, Baghche Pass, to northern Syria and the Euphrates. Rome's first emperor, Augustus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, has probably had the most lasting effect on history of all rulers of the classical world. New entries into the Senate after Sulla's reforms were also required to serve in the traditional magistrate position of quaestor before admittance into the Senate. After the death of Sulla in 78 BC, additional and expected power grabs were the result. The Sarus now enters the sea almost due south of Tarsus, but there are clear indications that at one period it joined the Pyramus, and that the united rivers ran to the sea west of Kara-tash. under Gaius Marius in the wars against the Numidian rebel Jugurtha. In additional counter measures from an intimidation perspective more blood shed against possible Sullan supporters took place. Sulla followed his defeated adversary and won another victory in a very short time. Flaccus attempted to flee, but was captured shortly after and the rightful Consular commander was executed. The region has the second richest flora in the world and it is the producer of all agricultural products of Turkey except hazelnut and tobacco. In the cover of night they attacked, startling the guards and sending them and their satrap into full flight, setting their crops aflame as they made for Tarsus. He knew well the writings of Xenophon, and how the Cilician Gates had been "impassable if obstructed by the enemy". … Günstige Preise Exklusive Businessrabatte bis zu 30 % NEU: Miles & More Prämienmeilen bei jeder Buchung! Sulla was pushed hard on his left flank with the situation so dangerous that he and his men were pushed right up against the city walls. Region in southeast Asia Minor (q.v. Seriously defeated Norbanus was forced to retreat to Capua where there was no respite. The reservoirs in the region are Seyhan, Çatalan, Yedigöze, Kozan and Mehmetli. Engels, David. During the time of the First Crusade, the area was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Athens and its main port, the Piraeus, were the obvious targets and Sulla ordered a direct assault. Marius took command of one force to stop the Teutones, while Sulla joined Marius' rival Catulus in a force to stop the Cimbri. The province has many villages inhabited by Christians as well as the only remaining ethnic Armenian village of Turkey, Vakıflı. Fimbria quickly won a decisive victory over remaining Mithridatic forces and moved on the capital of Pergamum. This Christian state, surrounded by Muslim states hostile to its existence, had a stormy history of about 300 years, giving valuable support to the Crusaders, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy.[6]. Earlier references note the geological differences of the region by other names with the same connotation of “f… Would the Republic Have Survived Had They Served a 2nd Course? There are also regional trains from Adana to Ceyhan, Osmaniye and İskenderun. Thriving regional economy, doubling of Cilician Armenian population due to flee from Hamidian massacres, the end of autocratic Abdulhamid rule with the revolution of 1908, empowered the Armenian community and envisioned an autonomous Cilicia. Tarsus is the birthplace of St. Paul, who returned to the city after his conversion. Cilicia lacked large cities. 600-400 B.C. Other men who opposed Sulla, such as Sertorius in Spain figured prominently as well. In a meeting the following day, and while the execution of several thousand prisoners was taking place, Sulla addressed the Senate in the temple of Bellona. Unfortunately, the death of his mother would leave him penniless. Athens finally surrendered and the town was sacked. [37], Cilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey in 67 BC following a Battle of Korakesion (modern Alanya), and Tarsus was made the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. French Government sent four battalions of the Armenian Legion in December to take over and oversee the repatriation of more than 170,000 Armenians to Cilicia. With the expansions, Cilician Kingdom became as strong as Babylonia, one of the powerhouses of the time. In the heart of the Social War, Mithridates VI of Pontus began stirring up trouble in the east. Cilicia was the seat of the Ancient Kingdom of Armenia. Essa si estendeva lungo le coste del Mediterraneo dalla Panfilia al Monte Amanus (Giaour Dagh), che la separa dalla Siria. Norbanus marched first with the intention of blocking a Sullan advance at Canusium. A lack of Roman interference on these minor issues probably played a part in pushing Mithridates agenda farther. Adana–Kozan, Adana–Karataş, İskenderun–Antakya–Aleppo double roads are other regional roads. He issued a proclamation ordering the massacre of all resident Romans in Asia Minor and surroundings. La Cilícia Campestris arribava fins a Soli i després cap a l'est-sud-est fins al Cap Karadash (antic Magarsos). While Sulla was gathering strength on his move, the Macedonian governor Sentius recalled Sura to grant Sulla full control of the campaign. There are aquaculture farms in Akyatan, Akyağan, Yumurtalık lakes and at Seyhan Reservoir. See more. Adana Şakirpaşa Airport serves the provinces of Mersin, Adana and Osmaniye. He allowed Caesar to live in exchange for divorcing his wife, but Caesar defiantly refused. Als Mithridatische Kriege werden die drei in den Jahren 89 bis 63 v. Chr.
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